When speaking about women’s health, many experts primarily mean such a disease as breast cancer. Let’s talk in more detail about what kind of disease it is, what place is assigned to it in Russian and world medical statistics.
Breast cancer is a problem not only in Russia, but also in the whole world. The problem has become very acute in recent years. We are seeing an increase in breast cancer incidence rates, although they are only 2-6% per year. If we take these numbers as a whole over a decade, we see a steady increase in the incidence of breast cancer. Of course, medicine does not stand still: we have modern diagnostic technologies that allow early detection of problems with the mammary gland. The responsibility of people for their health is also increasing, and therefore more and more women seek help from gynecologists, oncologists, mammologists when they have any problems with the mammary gland.
Among the most common symptoms: soreness of the mammary glands, discharge from the nipples, the presence of a palpable formation in the gland. Even the least alarming problem – mastodynia, that is, soreness of the mammary glands before menstruation or during the entire menstrual cycle, deserves attention.
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Why are these incidence rates growing today?
“We live in a world in which the number of risk factors for breast cancer is increasing. There are environmental risk factors. There is a genetic predisposition that can be traced to a family history. Therefore, when building a plan for the diagnosis and treatment of patients, we also rely on the data of genetic research.
– How is breast cancer diagnosed?
– Breast cancer is a malignant tumor confirmed by one of the diagnostic methods. Most often, cytological diagnostics are performed when a fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the breast formation is performed, and a cytologist diagnoses breast cancer if atypical cells are found in the preparation. The definitive diagnosis of breast cancer is made histologically.
That is, after surgical removal of a formation suspicious of a malignant tumor, a histologist examines tissue sections under a microscope and determines whether there are structures characteristic of cancer. In general, it is very important to undergo a comprehensive examination on time, which includes ultrasound diagnostics, mammography in two standard projections, and consultation with a gynecologist. Often, breast diseases are associated with gynecological pathology. Only on the basis of a comprehensive examination can the stage of the disease be established.
– What tests are usually taken, what procedures do women undergo at the initial stage?
– We are guided by Russian and international ESMO standards for diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostics is carried out in full, in particular, the above-mentioned examinations are performed. Additionally, a woman undergoes genetic examinations, we determine whether she has a hereditary pathology, or it is an acquired pathology during her life.
-What factors influence a woman’s getting into a risk group?
– Of course, there are women who are at risk of developing breast cancer. These are patients with aggravated gynecological history, they have ovarian pathology, for example, polycystic ovary syndrome, or some kind of ovarian dysfunction. Also at risk are patients with early menarche (early onset of menstruation), or women who enter biological menopause late (women who menstruate long enough to increase the risk of breast cancer), women with metabolic syndrome and obesity.
The risk group appears in connection with environmental factors that affect the woman’s body – irrational and unhealthy diet, sedentary and sedentary lifestyle. The ecological situation contributes to the appearance of mutations in cells, the formation of atypical cells. Risk factors include family history and endocrinological pathology (thyroid disease, hypothyroidism should be noted separately). In addition, hormonal supplementation is essential .