Nowadays, oncological diseases and deaths from them came in second place after cardiovascular diseases. One of the most severe and widespread diseases of all genitourinary system organs is bladder cancer. It accounts for 1.5-3% of the total number of malignant tumors and 30-50% of tumors of the genitourinary organs. Men get sick 3-4 times more often than women, the greatest spread of this tumor is observed at the age of 40-60 years. In children it is 60 times less common than in adults, more often in boys.
What is bladder cancer?
Bladder cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the covering (epithelial) tissue of the bladder.
The most common is transient cell cancer (90%), less often flat cell and adenocarcinoma. In addition to the above, the bladder may be affected by tumors of neighboring organs – prostate, uterus, etc.
Causes of the disease
- The chemical theory of the origin of malignant bladder tumors is now the most widely used. It is believed that 10-20% of all bladder cancers are professionally caused. In recent decades, the number of professions that contribute to the emergence of this form of cancer has expanded significantly – we are talking about leather production, gas processing, electrode, coke, aluminum, petrochemical, rubber, textile and other industries. In addition, there is an increased risk of bladder cancer among drivers of cars and agricultural machinery, workshops, especially foundries and other professions, with the presence of overheating factors and contact with various chemicals.
- Smoking is the most important etiological factor of bladder cancer. Through smoking, the body gets a number of carcinogenic substances. Today, among patients with bladder cancer, men smokers account for more than 90%. Risk of cancer increases more than 6 times when smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day.
- The systematic use of alcohol also increases the risk of bladder cancer. By damaging tissues, alcohol stimulates increased cell reproduction, changes hormonal status, vitamin balance, and damages the immune system. All alcoholic drinks may contain carcinogens – surface active carbohydrates, nitrosamines. The risk of cancer development becomes especially high if you drink alcohol 3 times a week and more often.
- Nutrition factor – in recent decades, it has become increasingly important in the etiology of bladder cancer. The risk of disease is increased by irregular and insufficient consumption of milk, vitamin A, carrots, umbrella family vegetables, as well as a passion for smoked, salted food and strong coffee. In addition, it significantly increases the risk of bladder cancer in both men and women the habit of eating small amounts of fluid per day, not exceeding 1 liter.
Symptoms of the disease
The symptoms of bladder tumors at the earliest stages are mainly composed of: hematuria (secretion of blood with urine) and dysuria (random urination).
- Hematuria – in 75% of cases of bladder cancer is the first symptom of the disease. It can occur suddenly in the background of good health and also suddenly disappear without any treatment. Hematuria is total, if the tumor is bleeding constantly, or temporary, if bleeding occurs only when the bladder shrinks. Microscopic hematuria (erythrocyturia) is less common. The duration and frequency of bleeding varies widely. Sometimes, the hematuria is short-lived, repeated at intervals of many months or even years. In some cases, it lasts several days or even several weeks in a row and is repeated frequently.
- Dysuria is spontaneous, painful, and frequent urination; it may occur not only with a bladder tumor, but also with acute cystitis, stones, bladder tuberculosis, acute prostate, adenoma, and prostate cancer. Therefore, it is very important to see an urologist immediately if you have such symptoms.